Wiki: “A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.[1] It is one of the four main types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire, quagmire, and muskeg; alkaline mires are called fens. They are frequently covered in ericaceous shrubs rooted in the sphagnum moss and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog functions as a carbon sink.

Of all the various biotic communities in Estonia, bogs are the most ancient – the process of paludification began after the Baltic ice lake receded about 10,000 years ago, and continues to the present day. The flora and fauna in mires is unique – many animal and plant species are adapted to live there and there only. About a quarter of Estonia’s plants grow only in mires, among them many relict species from the Ice Age.

Bogs form over a very long period. There is plentiful peat moss on the ground. If it grows, the soil rises like dough – a fen-type wetland becomes transitional mire and, finally, a bog. Peat moss turns into peat as it decays. Most Estonian mires have a later of peat about 3-6 metres thick. The record is from southern Estonia, where a peat layer 17 m thick was found near the country’s highest point, Suur-Munamägi.


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View toward the northwest across Männikjärve bog.


Part of the 700 metre boardwalk at Sutlepa meri


Vöhandu river + Meenikunno raba